The Christian and the Old Testament (Part 2) - The Law of Moses; Conditional Old Covenant; The New Testament

For a master copy of the outline, click here: The Christian and the Old Testament D. The "old" or "first" testament/covenant is the law of Moses. i. Each time the word "old" or "first" testament/covenant is used in the NT, it is referring to the law of Moses, such as the following: a. The first covenant (Heb 8:7,9; Heb 9:1). (i) The first covenant was the law of Moses which gave commandments concerning the Levitical priesthood (Heb 8:4) and instructions concerning the tabernacle (Heb 8:5). (ii) The first covenant was made with Israel when God took them out of Egypt (Heb 8:9), which was the law of Moses. (iii) The first covenant (Heb 9:1) is clearly the law of Moses which included detailed instructions regulating all aspects of the tabernacle service (Heb 9:2-9). (iv) It lasted until the time of reformation when Christ became an high priest of a greater and more perfect tabernacle in heaven (Heb 9:10-11,24). (v) Part of the first covenant was written on stone tables (the ten commandments) and stored in the ark of the covenant (Heb 9:4). b. The old covenant (Heb 8:13). (i) The first covenant became the old covenant when the new covenant was struck by Jesus Christ. (ii) The new covenant is a better covenant/testament (Heb 7:22; Heb 8:6). c. The first testament (Heb 9:15,18,20). (i) The first testament was the law of Moses which was dedicated with the blood that Moses sprinkled on it (Heb 9:18-19). (ii) This was the covenant that God made with Israel (Exo 24:6-8). d. The old testament (2Co 3:14). (i) The old testament in context is the law of Moses (2Co 3:15). (ii) Specifically, it is the ten commandments which were written and engraven in stones (2Co 3:7 c/w Exo 34:29-35). ii. The law of Moses is referred to as: a. The law of Moses (Act 13:39). b. The law (Joh 1:17; Mat 12:5 c/w Num 28:9-10). c. The book of Moses (Mar 12:26 c/w Exo 3:6). d. Or simply as "Moses" (2Co 3:15; Mat 19:7 c/w Deu 24:1). E. The other parts of the Old Testament of our Bible are also called "the law." i. The ten commandments are referred to as the law of Moses. a. The ten commandments are referred to as "Moses" (Mar 7:10 c/w Exo 20:12). b. "Moses" is another name for the law of Moses (2Co 3:15). c. Moses gave the ten commandments to Israel just as he gave the rest of the law to them (Exo 34:29,32). ii. The prophets are referred to as "the law" (1Co 14:21 c/w Isa 28:11-12). iii. The Psalms are referred to as "the law" (Joh 10:34 c/w Psa 82:6). III. The Old Covenant was conditioned upon Israel's obedience. 1. The first covenant that God made with Israel was conditional (Exo 19:5-8). A. Israel broke the covenant shortly after they agreed to keep it (Exo 32:1-5). B. God was therefore no longer obliged to keep His end of the covenant. 2. God made a second covenant with Israel (Deu 4:1-2, 15-19). A. They had to keep this covenant to possess the land of Canaan (Deu 4:1). B. This covenant was conditional too (Deu 7:12). C. Israel as a nation (ye, you, your, yourselves are all plural) would likewise break the second covenant and eventually be cast out of the land as a result (Deu 4:25-28). D. Even though the nation would break the covenant and be dispossessed of the land, individuals (thou, thee, thy are all singular) could receive mercy from God if they repented and turned to God (Deu 4:29-31). E. This happened in the New Testament when individual Jews repented and believed on the Lord Jesus Christ and were added to the NT church under the new covenant (Act 2:37-42,47). F. In the NT church they received the blessings they once had under the old covenant (1Pe 2:5,9 c/w Exo 19:5-6). IV. The New Testament 1. The New Testament was written in Christ's blood (Heb 9:15 c/w Luk 22:20). 2. It went into effect when He died (Heb 9:16-17). 3. When a new testament is written, it makes any previous testaments null and void (Heb 8:13). A. Testament n. - 1. Law. A formal declaration, usually in writing, of a person's wishes as to the disposal of his property after his death; a will. Formerly, properly applied to a disposition of personal as distinct from real property (cf. c). Now rare (chiefly in phrase last will and testament). B. If a person writes a last will and testament, and then later writes a new last will and testament prior to his death, only the last testament (the new testament) goes into effect upon his death. C. When Christ died, having written a new testament, the new testament became of force (Heb 9:17), and the first testament (law of Moses - Heb 9:18-19) became old, decayed, and vanished away (Heb 9:13). For a master copy of the outline, click here: The Christian and the Old Testament