Flat Earth Refutation (Part 2) - A Biblical and Scientific RefutationSubmitted by Pastor Chad Wagner on Sunday, April 9, 2017.
Watch the video of this sermon on YouTube: Flat Earth Refutation (Part 2).
Flat Earth Refutation 8. Sun moves in a circuit - Psa 19:6 A. This is figurative language: "as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber", "as a strong man to run a race" (Psa 19:5). B. Even if the sun literally does move in a circuit through the heavens, this doesn't prove a flat earth, but rather a geocentric solar system. C. If Psa 19:6 is to be taken literally, then the sun would move from "the end of heaven," meaning that it would begin its circuit from the edge of the flat earth where the heaven ends. i. This is not what it does according in the flat earth model. ii. In the flat earth model the sun moves in a circle that is much smaller than the circumference of the earth and never gets to the end of heaven. 9. Height of heaven - Job 11:8 A. They say that there can't be a height of heaven in an expanding universe. B. Even if the universe is expanding there can still be a height to it which is increasing as time continues. C. Furthermore, Job 11:8 is comparing the height of the heaven with God's unsearchableness (Job 11:7), so to use it to prove that the heaven is of a finite height ruins the metaphor. 10. Length and width of the earth - Rev 20:9; Job 38:18; Job 11:9 A. They say there is no length and width on a sphere. B. Breadth - 1. a. Measure or distance from side to side of a surface; width, extent across. Also fig. C. In Rev 20:9, armies from the four quarters of the earth "went up on the breadth of the earth" to travel to compass the saints. i. In other words they traversed the earth from every part of the earth to the place of the saints. ii. A globular earth has breadth as a man is traveling across it. D. The diameter of a globe is its breadth, which is what the Lord could be referring to in Job 38:18 if He was not referring to its circumference. 11. Stars shall fall from heaven - Mat 24:29; Mar 13:25; Rev 6:13 A. Flat-earthers say that the stars are small and close to earth which is why they can fall from heaven. B. First of all, these passages are metaphorical prophecies. i. Mat 24:19 and Mar 13:25 are metaphorical statements referring to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70AD. ii. Similar language was used to refer to the destruction of Egypt (Eze 32:2,7-10) and Babylon (Isa 13:1,9-10). iii. The book of Revelation is signified (to be a sign or symbol of) (Rev 1:1), and therefore Rev 6:13 cannot be used as a proof text to prove that the stars will literally fall from heaven. C. Secondly, God could cause stars to fall from heaven no matter how large or far away from earth they may be. D. These verses do not prove a flat earth. 12. The "circle of the earth" - Isa 40:22; Isa 22:18 (they say that Isaiah knew the difference between a ball and a circle) A. The flat-earthers use this verse to "prove" that the earth is flat. B. They say that a circle is not a sphere, and therefore this proves that the earth is flat. C. They say that Isaiah knew the difference between a circle and a ball (Isa 22:18). D. If their argument proves anything, it proves too much. i. A circle is a two dimensional object. ii. The flat earth people teach that the earth is a cylinder with a much larger diameter than height (a puck or disc). iii. A circle is not a cylinder, therefore this verse doesn't prove that the earth is flat. E. Isa 40:22 actually proves that the earth is a sphere, not a puck. i. Circle - 1. a. A perfectly round plane figure. In Geom. defined as a plane figure bounded by a single curved line, called the circumference, which is everywhere equally distant from a point within, called the centre. But often applied to the circumference alone, without the included space. 2. b. Naut. great circle sailing: navigation along the arc of a great circle of the earth. ii. Equator n. - 2. Geog. A great circle of the earth, in the plane of the celestial equator, and equidistant from the two poles. 3. a. transf. A similarly situated circle on any heavenly (or, occasionally, any spherical) body. iii. Meridian n. - 4. [Ellipt. for meridian circle or line.] a. Astr. (More explicitly celestial m.) The great circle (of the celestial sphere) which passes through the celestial poles and the zenith of any place on the earth's surface. b. (More explicitly terrestrial m.) The great circle (of the earth) which lies in the plane of the celestial meridian of a place, and which passes through the place and the poles; also often applied to that half of this circle that extends from pole to pole through the place. c. transf. (a) Geom. Occasionally applied to any great circle of a sphere that passes through the poles, or to a line, on a surface of revolution, that is in a plane with its axis. (b) magnetic meridian: the great circle of the earth that passes through any point on its surface and the magnetic poles. iv. Mile n. - 3. geographical, geometrical, †maritime, nautic(al mile: a measure of length = one minute of a great circle of the earth. Owing to the fact that the earth is not a true sphere, the ‘mile’ as thus defined varies considerably, the difference between the extreme values being about 62 feet; when taken as a minute of the meridian, the value increases with the latitude, in consequence of the varying curvature. It has therefore been found convenient to assign a standard value for nautical use; the British Admiralty fixed it at 6,080 feet. v. The "circle of the earth" is the equator, or any other circle of circumference, of the earth. vi. If a person is sitting on the equator, he is sitting on "the circle of the earth." vii. If a person is sitting anywhere on the earth, he is sitting on "the circle of the earth." F. The earth is God's footstool (Isa 66:1; Mat 5:35; Act 7:49). i. Therefore God's feet are sitting on "the circle of the earth." ii. Therefore God is sitting on "the circle of the earth." G. The LORD sitting on the circle of the earth is a symbolic way of saying that the earth is under His authority (Mat 22:44; Heb 10:13; Eph 1:20-22; Heb 2:8; 1Co 15:25). 13. God sees the people of earth from heaven as grasshoppers - Psa 33:14 c/w Isa 40:22 A. Flat-earthers argue that God can't see people on earth from billions of light years away. B. This argument is asinine. C. God is omnipresent and sees everything (Pro 15:3). D. Humanly speaking, a man wouldn't be visible at all from thousands of miles above earth, just as he wouldn't be visible from billions of light years. 14. Heavens are like a tent - Isa 40:22 A. Flat-earthers say that the dome, in which the heavens are encapsulated, over the earth is shaped like a pop-up tent. B. If Isaiah 40:22 teaches that the heavens are shaped like a tent, then also it teaches that they are shaped like a curtain. C. Isaiah 40:22 is not referring to the shape of the heavens, but it is rather speaking metaphorically concerning how God stretched out the heavens like He would stretch out a curtain or a tent. 15. Ends of the earth - Job 37:3; Dan 4:11; Pro 30:4 A. Flat-earthers say that the Bible teaches that the earth is a flat plane when it speaks of the "ends of the earth." B. Flat-earthers say that a globe has no ends and therefore the earth can't be a globe. C. End n. - 1. a. The extremity or outermost part (in any direction) of a portion of space, or of anything extended in space; utmost limit. Obs. in general sense; retained in phrase, the end(s) of the earth. D. When viewed from afar, the sides of the globular earth are the ends of it, just like the sides of a puck are the ends of it. E. Furthermore, the "ends of the earth" doesn't refer to the alleged ice wall of Antarctica that supposedly forms the outer edge of the flat earth (Deu 28:49). i. Did the queen of Sheba live in Antarctica? (Mat 12:42) ii. Uttermost adj. - I. 1. Outermost; farthest out or off; remotest 16. The sky is strong and as a molten looking glass (Job 37:18). A. Flat-earthers use this verse to try to support the idea that the firmament is a glass dome encompassing the flat earth. B. Looking-glass n. - 1. a. A glass to look in, in order to see one's own face or figure; a mirror made of a plate of glass coated at the back with an amalgam of quicksilver; †applied occas. to a metal mirror (cf. glass n. 8b). C. Glass n. - 8. a. A glass mirror, a looking-glass. b. applied to a mirror of other material. D. First of all, this verse is referring to the sky, not a hard dome. E. A looking glass in Job's day was most likely a metal mirror since the glass mirrors we have today were not invented at that time. i. Even if the looking glass in Job 37:18 was made of glass, the verse is clearly speaking figuratively by way of the word "as." ii. Therefore, Job 37:18 is not teaching that the sky is literally made of glass or metal. iii. Furthermore, if Job 37:18 were to be taken literally and the sky was actually a mirror (a looking glass), whether made of glass or metal, it would not be transparent from outside of the earth like the flat earth models show because a glass mirror is coated with metal to make it reflective. F. The sky (atmosphere) is strong in the following ways. i. It keeps out harmful rays from the sun. ii. It creates friction causing great heat for anything entering it, burning meteors and spacecraft entering it. iii. It holds in heat, making life on earth possible. G. The sky (atmosphere) is like a mirror in that it reflects light back on to the earth, making daylight possible. 17. Sun is in the clouds - Job 37:21 A. The flat-earthers believe that the sun is located in or just above the clouds. B. A trip in an airplane will disprove this. C. The sun can be said to be "in the clouds" just like it could be said to be "between those mountains" because in both cases it is shining through them. 18. Every eye will see Jesus when He returns - Mat 24:30; Rev 1:7 A. The flat-earthers say that every eye couldn't see Jesus coming in the clouds on a globular earth. B. If every eye can't physically see the sun in the sky at the same time on a flat earth, then neither could every eye physically and naturally see Jesus in the sky when He returns. C. Every eye will see Jesus' return by miraculous means. III. Scientific Refutation 1. If the earth was flat, the sun could always be seen, and it would not set under the horizon. A. The sun and the moon stay the same size as they move across the sky and as they set under the horizon. B. In the flat earth model the sun supposedly sets under the horizon due to perspective because it is moving away past the vanishing point. C. If this were true, the sun would appear to get smaller as it nears the horizon, which it does not. E. Proving the Earth is not Flat - Part 1 - The Horizon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W9ksbh88OJs 2. The speed of the sun in the southern hemisphere A. The flat-earthers claim that the sun revolves in a circle above the flat earth. B. They explain the seasons by claiming that the circuit of the sun expands in circumference beginning at the Summer Solstice at the Tropic of Cancer and continuing until the Winter Solstice at the Tropic of Capricorn. C. D. There is a major problem with this theory that absolutely destroys the whole flat earth model. i. Days are always 24 hours long all year. ii. The sun always takes 24 hours to complete its circuit each day throughout the year. iii. This means that during the winter solstice when the sun is in the southern hemisphere, the circuit that the sun would be making over the earth would be twice the distance that it is at the summer solstice because the Tropic of Capricorn cancer on the flat earth model is twice the circumference as the Tropic of Cancer. iv. This means that the sun would have to be traveling at twice the speed to circle the earth in 24 hours at the winter solstice as it does at the summer solstice. a. This is demonstrably false. b. Observation shows that the sun travels at the same speed across the sky all year long. c. The sun spends less time in the sky in our winter season, not because it's moving faster, but because its lower in the sky and doesn't cross as much of the sky. v. This means that the days would have to be much shorter in the summer time in the southern hemisphere (our winter) than they would in the summer time in the northern hemisphere because the sun would be moving faster in the summer time in the southern hemisphere than it is in the summer time in the northern hemisphere. a. This is demonstrably false. b. Toronto, Canada (43.65° North Latitude) and Christchurch, New Zealand (43.53° South Latitude) are at equivalent latitudes north and south of the equator, respectively. c. This means that the hours of daylight at their respective winter and summer solstices should be the same on the globular earth, which they indeed are. d. They could not be the same on a flat earth. e. The following quote is from Edward Hendrie's book The Greatest Lie on Earth which attempts to prove that the earth is flat, but instead proves it's a globe. f. "That means that equivalent latitudes north of the equator (Toronto, Canada, 43.65° North Latitude) and south of the equator (Christchurch, New Zealand, 43.53° South Latitude) have equivalent length of the days during their respective winter solstices (8:56) and summer solstices (15:26)." (Edward Hendrie, The Greatest Lie on Earth - 9th Edition, p. 321) vi. The fact that the length of the days on the respective winter and summer solstices in Canada and New Zealand are identical is irrefutable proof that the sun is traveling at the same speed all year long. a. Therefore, the sun is traveling the same distance all year long. b. This is impossible on a flat earth. 3. Pictures of ships disappearing bottom-first due to the curvature of the earth. E. Flat Earth Debunked - Cruise Ship Hidden by Horizon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0NTqAUgoD9g 4. Pictures of buildings across a channel where the bottoms of the buildings are covered by water prove the curvature of the earth. A. The bottom fourth of the CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario is covered by the water when viewed 30 miles away from Niagara-on-the-lake, NY due to the curvature of the earth. B. C. Proving the Earth is not Flat - Part 1 - The Horizon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W9ksbh88OJs D. Flat-earthers try to use the fact that the Chicago skyline can be seen across Lake Michigan from 60 miles away, which should not be possible given the curvature of the earth. i. This is an atmospheric refraction phenomenon called "looming" that only happens rarely when colder air is below warmer air which bends the light around the curve of the earth. ii. "Due to cool air near the horizon contrasted to warmer air above the horizon, the cool air acts like a lens. When light goes through a lens it is magnified but it is also bent." (Robert Sungenis, Flat Earth/ Flat Wrong, p. 543). iii. iv. Normally, the skyline is not visible from such distances. v. When it is, the buildings appear deformed because of the light bending over the water, such as in the following picture. Notice how the building is elongated and the bottoms are not visible. vi. vii. Proving the Earth is not Flat - Part 1 - The Horizon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W9ksbh88OJs E. If there is no curvature, why stop at 60 miles? Why not look at the Chicago skyline from the north shore of lake Michigan over 300 miles away? F. The following video is absolute proof that the surface of the earth is curved: Flat Earth CRUSHED by Discovery Channel - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QVa2UmgdTM4 5. The moon A. Flat earthers say that the moon puts out its own light. i. This is ridiculous and can be shown to be false by anyone with a telescope. ii. Shadows can be seen in the moon's craters, proving that its light is external. B. The moon has been calculated to be 239,900 miles from earth based on a spherical earth. i. The same side of the moon is seen everywhere on earth because it is so far from earth. ii. The flat earthers say that the moon is only 3,000 miles from earth based on their calculation based on a flat earth. iii. If the moon were that close, different sides and different phases of it would be seen in New York and Argentina (which are about 6,000 miles apart) at the same time. iv. v. Proving the Earth is not Flat - Part 3 - The Moon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FTBaOmJEQg0 C. The moon is inverted when viewed from the northern hemisphere versus the southern hemisphere. i. ii. Flat Earth & Fake NASA Conspiracy COMPLETELY Debunked into Oblivion - Case Closed Forever (RIP): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ikmOGqA7R7A D. Curved shadows on the moon show that the moon is a sphere, not a disc. i. The phases of the moon are perfectly explained with a spherical moon that reflects the sun's light. ii. The phases of the moon are impossible with a disc-shaped moon. E. If the other planets and moons are spheres, why wouldn't the earth be? F. Lunar eclipses i. Lunar eclipses are not possible in the flat earth model because it is impossible for the earth to get between the sun and the moon. ii. The shadow of the earth on the moon during a lunar eclipse shows that the earth is a round. 6. The fact that we don't see curvature is due to how small we are compared to the earth. 7. You can see satellites orbiting the earth with your own eyes. 8. Stars A. Different stars and constellations are seen in the northern and southern hemispheres because of the curvature of the earth. B. Stars rotate counterclockwise around the North Star in the northern hemisphere, while stars rotate clockwise around the Southern Cross in the southern hemisphere which proves the earth is a globe. 9. The Coriolis Effect A. Long range shooters, artillery, and ICBMs must compensate for the Coriolis Effect. B. See: Flat Earth & Fake NASA Conspiracy COMPLETELY Debunked into Oblivion - Case Closed Forever (RIP): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ikmOGqA7R7A C. Hurricanes in the Southern Hemisphere spin clockwise, while in the Northern Hemisphere they spin counterclockwise. D. The Coriolis Effect is said to be due to rotation of the earth. E. It has been theorized that if the universe is revolving around the earth, the same forces would be present on the earth as if the earth were rotating, possibly accounting for the Coriolis Effect in a geocentric universe. F. Whether the universe is geocentric or heliocentric, the Coriolis Effect is a problem for the flat earth theory. 10. Direct flights from South America to Australia A. Flat-earthers say that there are no direct flights from South America to Australia because they can't travel that far going from one end of the earth to the other. B. This is false. There are direct, non-stop flights from Santiago, Chile to Sydney, Australia which take 14 hours. C. This would be impossible on a flat earth due to the Santiago and Sydney being on opposite ends of the flat earth which is alleged to be over 24,000 miles in diameter. 11. Gravity A. Some have speculated that the earth is moving upward which causes gravity. i. First of all, this contradicts one of their own fundamental arguments that the earth is fixed and doesn't move. ii. Secondly, to equal the acceleration caused by gravity, the earth would have to be accelerating upwards by 32.2 feet per second per second, which would mean that after 6,000 years it would be traveling 1.154 billion miles per second ((32.2 ft/s^2 x (60sec / 1min) x (60min / 1hr) x (24hr / 1day) x (365 day / 1 yr) x 6000 yr x (1mile / 5,280ft)) which is 6,204 times the speed of light (1.154 billion miles per sec / 186,000 miles per sec). iii. This is obviously impossible and ridiculous. B. Many flat-earthers deny that gravity exists. i. They say the gravity effect is caused by density and buoyancy. ii. They say that things stick to the earth because they are heavier than air and therefore in essence sink to the bottom of the atmosphere. iii. The density theory is easily disproved by simple experiments done in a vacuum wherein there is no air. a. When items are dropped in a vacuum, they fall toward the earth at the speed of gravity. b. If the density theory were true, the items would float in the empty space inside the vacuum. c. See the following experiments which prove the existence of gravity: (i) Brian Cox visits the world's biggest vacuum chamber - Human Universe: Episode 4 Preview - BBC Two - https://youtu.be/E43-CfukEgs (ii) Feather and Coin in a Vacuum - https://youtu.be/AV-qyDnZx0A