Baptist Church History (Part 6) - Petrobrussians; Henricians; Arnoldists; WaldensesSubmitted by Pastor Chad Wagner on Sunday, September 13, 2015.
For a master copy of the outline, click here: Baptist Church History 8. The Petrobrussians and Henricians (12th Century) A. The Petrobrussians were named after their famous leader Peter de Bruys. They appeared in southern France in the early 12th century and numbered in the hundreds of thousands. After he was martyred, Peter was succeeded by a preacher named Henry, from which the name Henricians comes. i. "The Petrobrussians numbered their hundreds of thousands. In the Middle Ages they were a great and shining light. Historians agree that the Petrobrussians appeared in the South of France about 1104. Of their great leader — Peter de Bruys — Kurtz says: “He rejected the outward or visible church, and only acknowledged the true, invisible church in the hearts of believers. In his opinion all churches and sanctuaries should be destroyed, since God might be worshipped in a stable or tavern. He used crucifixes for cooking purposes; inveighed against celibacy, the mass and infant baptism; and after twenty years of continued disturbance ended his days at the stake by the hands of an infuriated mob, 1124. He was succeeded by one of his associates, Henry of Lausanne, formerly a monk of the order of Clugny. Under him the sect of the Petrobrussians greatly increased in numbers. "Farther on we will see that in stating the Petrobrussians rejected the visible church, Kurtz is as much in error as he is in stating that the only true church is not an outward organization, but only internal or invisible. Indeed, in that he says they rejected infant baptism, implying that they practiced adult baptism, Kurtz confutes his own statement; since water baptism implies a visible church. "Says Mosheim: “A much more rational sect was that which was founded about the year 1110 in Languedoc and Provence by Peter de Bruys, who made the most laudable attempts to reform the abuses and to remove the superstitions that disfigured the beautiful simplicity of the gospel, and after having engaged in the cause a great number of followers, during a ministry of twenty years continuance, was burnt at St. Giles, in the year 1130, by an enraged populace, set on by the clergy, whose traffic was in danger from the enterprising spirit of the reformer. The whole system of doctrine, which this unhappy martyr, whose zeal was not without a considerable mixture of fanaticism, taught to the Petrobrussians, his disciples, is not known. It is, however, certain that the five following tenets made a part of his system. (1.) That no persons whatever were to be baptised before they were come to the fullness of their reason. (2.) That it was an ideal superstition to build churches for the service of God, who will accept of sincere worship wherever it is offered, and that such churches as had already been erected should be pulled down and destroyed. (3.) That the crucifixes as instruments of superstition deserved the same fate. (4.) That the real body and blood of Christ were not exhibited in the eucharist, but were merely represented in the holy ordinance, by their figures and symbols. (5.) And, lastly, that the oblations, prayers, and the good works of the living, could be in no respect advantageous to the dead. This innovator was succeeded by another, who was of Italian birth, and whose name was Henry, the founder and parent of the sect of Henricians.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 140-141) B. The Petrobrussians rejected infant baptism and baptismal regeneration. i. "Mosheim continues: “We have no account of the doctrines of this reformer transmitted to our times. All we know of the matter is, that he rejected infant baptism; censured with severity the corrupt and licentious manners of the clergy; treated the festivals and ceremonies of the church with the utmost contempt; and held clandestine assemblies, in which he explained and inculcated the novelties he taught. Several writers affirm that he was a disciple of Peter de Bruys.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 142) ii. "After giving substantially the foregoing account, another historian adds: “The Petrobrussians, to justify themselves from the calumnies of Peter of Clugny and others, sent forth a work in answer to the question, ‘What is antiChrist?’ It is generally supposed to have been the production of Peter de Bruys, and is said to have been written as early as 1120. … In reference to the ordinances, it declares, ‘A third work of anti-Christ consists in this, that he attributes the regeneration of the Holy Spirit unto the mere external rite,’ (as Campbellism), ‘baptizing infants in that faith, teaching that thereby baptism and regeneration must be had; on which principle he bestows and confers orders, and, indeed, grounds all his Christianity, which is contrary to the mind of the Holy Spirit. This view was supported by a confession of their faith, in fourteen articles, published about the same time. In this confession they acknowledge the Apostles’ creed; belief in the Trinity; own the Canonical books of the Old and New Testament; scriptural character of God, of Adam and his fall; work of Christ as mediator; abhorrence of human inventions in worship; that the sacraments were signs of holy things and that believers should use the symbol or forms when it can be done; though they may be saved without those signs; they own baptism and the Lord’s supper; and express their obedience to secular powers.’” Thus, we see the Petrobrussian and Henrician churches were far from being either Campbellites or Pedobaptists, and that they believed in the visible church. Neander says: “Henry became the leader of the Petrobrussians.” " (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 142-143) iii. "Baptism was a nullity unless connected with personal faith, but all who believed were under solemn obligation to be baptized, according to the Saviour’s command. Peter was not merely what is now called ‘a Baptist in principle.’ When the truths he inculcated were received and men and women were received to ‘newness of life’ they were directed to the path of duty. Enemies said that was Anabaptism, but Peter and his friends indignantly repelled the imputation. The right performed in infancy, they maintained, was no baptism at all, since it wanted the essential ingredient, faith in Christ. There and then only when they professed were the converts really baptized." (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 143-144) C. The Petrobrussians and Henricians were Baptists. i. "That the Petrobrussians and the Henricians were Baptists is so certain that I conclude this chapter in the language of that very high authority, Prof. Buckland, late Professor of Ecclesiastical History in Rochester Theological Seminary: “We do reach a distinctively Baptist line in the Petrobrussians, in 1104, and I believe that we may claim that our distinctive principles were perpetuated continuously from that date onward into the Reformation period, and so to our day.” Or of Dr. A.H. Newman, of Peter de Bruys and of Henry of Lausanne: “The views of these teachers are well known to have been substantially Baptist.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 148) 9. The Arnoldists (12th Century) A. The Arnoldists were named after their courageous leader in Italy, Arnold of Brescia in the 12th century. i. Arnold led a revolt to break up the union of church and state and was eventually murdered for it. ii. "He was, indeed, condemned in the council of the Lateran, A.D. 1139, by Innocent II., and thereby obliged to retire to Switzerland; but upon the death of the pontiff he returned into Italy and raised at Rome, during the pontificate of Eugenie III., several tumults and seditions among the people, who changed by his instigation the government of the city and insulted the persons of the clergy in the most disorderly manner. He fell, however, at last, a victim to the vengeance of his enemies; for, after various turns of fortune, he was seized, in the year 1155, by a prefect of the city, by whom he was crucified and afterward burned to ashes." (W.A. Jarrel (quoting from Mosheim's Eccl. Hist.), Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 149) iii. Arnold was a likely a follower of Peter de Bruys (Petrobrussians). iv. "Ivimey says: “Arnold of Brescia seems to have been a follower of Bruis.” Peter de Bruys having been, probably, a pupil of the famous Abelard of Paris, of whom Arnold had been a pupil the latter would naturally fall into line with the Petrobrussians, especially as their cause was identical, and as they both took only the Bible for their guide." (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 158) B. Arnold rejected the eucharist, transubstantiation, infant baptism, baptismal regeneration, and the union of church and state. i. "Wadington gives substantially the above account, adding: “It is, besides, asserted that his orthodoxy was liable to suspicion respecting the eucharist and infant baptism. In consequence of these various charges he was condemned by a Lateran council in 1139 A.D.”" (W.A. Jarrel (quoting from Wadington's Church. Hist.), Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 150) ii. "As the apostle of liberty he contended for a full dissolution of the union between church and State, and fired the cities to seek perfect freedom from both pope and empire by establishing a republic." (W.A. Jarrel (quoting Armitage), Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 153) iii. "As a Christian he was an anti-sacramentarian, desiring to bring the church back to the New Testament standard; or, as Gibbon expresses it, he boldly threw himself upon the declaration of Christ: ‘My kingdom is not of this world.’" (W.A. Jarrel (quoting Armitage), Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 153) iv. "“Although the great distinctive feature in which Arnold most sympathized with Baptists relates to his unbending opposition to any union whatever with church and State, he appears to have sympathized with them in other respects. Dr. Wall says that the Lateran Council of A.D. 1139, condemned him for rejecting infant baptism, and he thinks that he was ‘a follower of Peter de Bruis’ in this respect. If so, then the council which condemned the Petrobrussians, condemned him. Bernard accuses him and his followers of deriding infant baptism. Evervine not only complains of the same thing but says that they Administered baptism only to believers. Gibbon also states that Arnold’s ‘ideas of baptism and the eucharist were loosely censured; but apolitical heresy was the source of his fame and his misfortunes.’”" (W.A. Jarrel (quoting from Armitage's Baptist History), Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 155-156) v. "Says Jones: “But there was a still more heinous thing laid to his charge, which was this: Praeter haec de sacramento altaris et baptismo parvulorum, non sane dicitur senisse! That is, he was unsound in his judgment about the sacrament of the altar and infant baptism. In other words, he rejected the popish doctrine of transubstantiation and the baptism of infants.” Arnold had no Campbellism in him; for the Romish church said of him: “Arnoldistae … asserunt, quod nunquam per baptismum aquae homines Spiritum sanctum accipiunt” — the Arnoldists assert that men never receive the Holy Spirit through baptism in water." (W.A. Jarrel (quoting from Jones' Church History), Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 156-157) C. The Arnoldists were called "Publicans" after the Paulicians. i. "Arnoldists were a Christian sect in the 12th century, named after Arnold of Brescia who criticized the great wealth and possessions of the Roman Catholic Church, and preached against baptism and the Eucharist. His disciples were also called "Publicans" or "Poplecans", a name probably deriving from Paulicians." (Arnoldist, Wikipedia) D. Arnold was a Baptist whose work paved the way for the Protestant Reformation hundreds of years later. i. "Modern historians rightly conclude that Luther’s Reformation was only the outburst of principles and doctrines agitated by the “heretics” long before and up to his time; to the Baptist agitation which had prepared the people for the great uprising against the old: “mother of harlots.” Without that preparation Luther’s work would have been impossible. Only by keeping in mind the previous Baptist agitation, can we rightly appreciate the origin of Arnold’s work. Their agitation of the great principles on which Arnold did his work had made hundreds of thousands of converts and honey-combed the old Romish fortress with gospel shot. Hence the people so readily gathered around Arnold as their God-sent leader." (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 157-158) ii. "No great movement, believing, as did Arnold’s, in a spiritual church, in the baptism of only believers — regenerate persons — and the separation of church and State, has been other than Baptist. Hence, with Dr. Ford, we may safely say, the Arnoldists were: “Baptists.” Or, in the language of Vedder, an opponent of Church Perpetuity: Arnold “may fairly be claimed by Baptists as belonging to them.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 158) 10. The Waldenses (12th - 17th Centuries) A. The Waldenses are supposed to have been organized by Peter Waldo in the 1170s in Lyon, France. They were spread throughout the alps in southern France and northern Italy. i. "The movement originated in the late twelfth century as the Poor Men of Lyons, a band organized by Peter Waldo, a wealthy merchant who gave away his property around 1173, preaching apostolic poverty as the way to perfection. As they developed, Waldensian teachings came into conflict with the Roman Catholic Church. By 1215, the Waldensians were declared heretical and subject to intense persecution; the group endured near annihilation in the seventeenth century, and were then confronted with organized and generalized discrimination in the centuries that followed." (Waldensians, Wikipedia) ii. "Of the twelfth century, Mosheim says: “Of all the sects that arose in this century none were more distinguished by the reputation it acquired, by the multitude of its votaries, and the testimony which its bitterest enemies bore to the probity and innocence of its members, than that of the Waldenses. … This sect was known by different denominations.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 159) B. There is credible evidence that the Waldenses date back to the early centuries of the church and possibly even to the days of the apostles, and were spread throughout Europe. i. "It is recorded, that so early as 1100, the religion of the Waldenses had spread itself almost in all parts of Europe, even among the Poles." (G.H. Orchard, A Concise History of Foreign Baptists, page 268) ii. "Pilchendorf, a Romish author of the fourteenth century, in his: “Contra Haeresin Waldensium” acknowledges their origin may be traced back in the early part of the fourth century." (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 266-267) iii. "Reynerus, who is called Reineri, Reinerius Saccho, Reiner Saccho, was a native of Plascenza, a Waldensian during the first seventeen years of his life, then, under Pope Alexander VI., A.D. 1261, turned preaching friar and became one of the ablest Romish advocates of his day, who is as much entitled to be heard as any one and whose testimony, considering so little is to the contrary, should be conclusive, wrote of the Waldensians:... Translated: Among all the sects which are now or have been, no sect is more pernicious than the church of Leonists. And this for three causes — first, because it is of longer endurance, some, indeed, saying it has endured from the time of Sylvester; others, from the time of the Apostles. Second, because it is more general. There being certainly — enim — almost no country — nulla terra — in which this sect does not exist." (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 267-268) iv. "Reiner Sacco speaks of the Lionists as a sect that had flourished above five hundred years (back to 750); while he mentions authors of note among them, who make their antiquity remount to the apostolic age." (G.H. Orchard (citing Ecc. Hist,, vol. ii, p. 320), A Concise History of Foreign Baptists, page 257) v. "Again, St. Bernard, born 1091, one of the ablest Romish advocates, said: “There is a sect which calls itself after no man’s name, which pretends to be in direct line of apostolic succession; and which, rustic and unlearned though it is, contends that the church is wrong, and that itself alone is right. It must derive its origin from the devil, since there is no other extraction which we can assign to it.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 269) C. The Waldenses were very anti-Roman Catholic. i. "A Dominican, named Rainer Sachet, of the Waldenses, acknowledged: “While other sects were profane and blasphemous, this retains the utmost show of piety; they live justly before men, and believe nothing respecting God which is not good; only they blaspheme against the Romish church and the clergy, and thus gain many followers.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 161) ii. "We have seen that that [sic] the Waldenses affiliated with the Hussites; and Erasmus wrote of them: “The Hussites renounced all rites and ceremonies of the Catholic church; they ridicule our doctrine and practices in both the sacraments; they deny orders (the hierarchy) and elect officers from among the laity; they receive no other rule than the Bible; they admit none into their communion until they are dipped in water, or baptized; and they reckon one another without distinction or rank to be called brothers and sisters.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 162) iii. "Reinerius says of the sect in general: “They say the bishops, clergy and other religious orders are no better than the scribes and Pharisees.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 179) D. There were different factions called Waldenses; some were paedobaptists, but most were Baptists. i. "Whether or not we recognize Mosheim’s Italian and French distinction between the different Waldenses, there is so much evidence that, in this period, there were parties of different characters, known as Waldenses, that we must recognize different beliefs and practices among them. This will readily harmonize the different documents, showing some Waldenses of this period remained in the church of Rome; some separated from it; some were never in it; some may have had infant baptism and other Romish trumpery, while most of them were Baptistic." (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 161) ii. "The Waldensians of the Reformation and the Post-Reformation period, by the reformers, were converted from only believers’ baptism. Says Armitage: “A great council of the Waldensians was held at Angrogna, in Savoy, 1532, to which the Swiss Protestants sent Farel and Olivetan, and then a new departure was taken. Henceforth the Piedmontese Waldensians were joined to the Swiss Protestant Pedobaptists.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 176) iii. "The Waldenses were Baptists in that they practiced only immersion." (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 162) iv. "Hence, Armitage says: “They believed and practiced immersion only.” Mezeray says: “In the twelfth century they (Waldenses) plunged the candidate in the sacred font.” (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 163) v. "Ermengard, about A.D. 1192: “They pretend that this sacrament cannot be conferred except upon those who demand it with their own lips, hence they infer the other error, that baptism does not profit infants who receive it.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 173) vi. "1146 - Peter, Abbot of Clugny, wrote agains the Waldenses, on account of their denying infant baptism. Ivimey's Hist. of the Eng. Bap., vol. i. p. 21." (G.H. Orchard, A Concise History of Foreign Baptists, page 300) vii. "1147 - Bernard the saint, the renowned Abbot of Clairval, says, the Albigenses and Waldenses administer baptism only to adults. They do not believe infant baptism. Facts op. to Fict., p. 47" (G.H. Orchard, A Concise History of Foreign Baptists, page 300) E. The Waldenses rejected baptismal regeneration. i. "In their Confession of 1544, they say: “We believe that in the ordinance of baptism the water is the visible and external sign, which represents to us that which by virtue of God’s invisible operations is within us, namely, the renovation of our minds and the mortification of our members through the faith of Jesus Christ. And by this ordinance we are received into the congregation of God’s people, previously professing and declaring our faith and change of life.” As Baptists do now, taking the ordinances for mere signs of grace which is already in the heart and for only believers or Christians, Armitage well says: “They rejected the error of regeneration by baptism.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 163) ii. "In the Waldensian tract against anti-Christ, said to have been written about the middle of the twelfth century, the Waldenses say of “anti-Christ:” “He teaches to baptize children into the faith, and attributes to this the work of regeneration.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 167) F. The Waldenses held the scriptures as their highest authority. i. "The Waldenses agreed with Baptists in that while they said: “In articles of faith the authority of the Holy Scriptures is the highest; and for that reason is the standard of judging,” they said we: “agree with the general Confession of Faith,” etc. They believed in Confessions of Faith as useful in making known their faith." (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 164) ii. "Their enemies lay to their charge, that "they were very zealous, that they (men and women) never cease from teaching night and day." "They had the Old and New Testament," says an inquisitor, "in the vulgar tongue; and that they teach and learn so well, that he had seen and heard a country clown recount all Job, word for word; and divers, who could perfectly deliver all the New Testament; and that men and women, little and great, day and night, cease not to learn and teach...."there was scarcely a man or woman among them, who was not far better read in the Bible, than the doctors of the church."" (G.H. Orchard, A Concise History of Foreign Baptists, page 266) iii. "So effectual was their mode of instruction, that many among them could retain in their memories most of the New Testament writings." (G.H. Orchard, A Concise History of Foreign Baptists, page 283) G. The Waldenses held to the doctrine of election and regeneration by the Holy Spirit. i. "Dissenters were called by various names, as the Poor of Lyons, Lionists, Paterines, Puritans, Arnoldists, Petrobrussians, Albigenses, Waldenses, &c., &c., different names, expressive of one and the same class of Christians. "However various their names, they may be," says Mezeray, "reduced to two, that is, the Albigenses (a term now about introduced), and the Vaudois [Waldenses], and these two held almost the same opinions as those we call Calvinists."" (G.H. Orchard, A Concise History of Foreign Baptists, page 192) ii. In 1655 the Waldenses "published a confession of their faith, from which the following articles are taken: Art. 25. That the church is a company of the faithful, who, having been elected before the foundation of the world, and called with a holy calling, come to unite themselves to follow the word of God, believing whatsoever he teacheth them, and living in his fear." (G.H. Orchard, A Concise History of Foreign Baptists, page 291) iii. "The Waldenses were Baptists as to the doctrine of Election. Prof. A.A. Hodge, D.D., of Princeton Theological Seminary, says: “The Waldenses, of whom were the slaughtered saints, whose ‘bones lie scattered on the Alpine mountains cold’; the victims of the reign of ‘Bloody Mary,’ John Rogers and Hooper, Farras, Ridley. … were all Calvinists.” “The Lollards, another name for the Waldenses, the followers of Wickliffe, in the fourteenth century, were all of the general school of St. Augustine.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 166) iv. "“A catechism emanating from the Waldenses, during the thirteenth century, has no allusion to infant baptism. It says of the church catholic, that it is the elect of God, through the merits of Christ, gathered together by the Holy Spirit, and foreordained to eternal life.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 168) v. "The Waldenses were Baptists as to the operation of the Holy Spirit. Article III, of their Confession of A.D. 1544 reads: “We believe that the Holy Spirit is the Comforter, proceeding from the Father and the Son, by whose inspiration we are taught to pray; being by Him renewed in the spirit of our minds; who creates us anew unto good works, and from whom we recover the knowledge of the truth.” (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 165) H. The Waldenses were anabaptists in that they rebaptized those who had been "baptized" as infants. i. "Petrus Cluniacenis, or Peter the Abbot of Clugny, wrote against them; and among the errors he imputes to them are these: “That Wants are not baptized, or saved by the faith of another, but ought to be baptized and saved by their own faith … and that those that are baptized in infancy, when grown up, should be baptized again. … rather rightly baptized.” Wall says: “They speak that baptism does no good to infants, and because they cannot profess faith.” “Ermengendus, a great man in the church, charges the Waldenses with denying infant baptism.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 167) ii. "Cardinal Hossius, who presided at the council of Trent, and made a history of the heresies of his own times, says the Waldenses, “rejected infant baptism and rebaptized all who embraced their sentiments.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 169) iii. "Drs. Ypeij and Derinont, two of the ablest and most eminent Pedobaptist scholars of Holland, who made this subject a matter of years’ research in the archives of Europe, say: “The Baptists who were in former times called Anabaptists … were the original Waldenses.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 174) iv. "Fusslin: “The Anabaptists were not wrong, therefore, when they say that anabaptism was no new thing. The Waldensians had practiced it before them.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 175) I. The Waldenses were the offspring of the Novatianists and Donatists; they were also called Puritans, Paterines, and Albigenses, and they were substantially the same as the Paulicians and Catharists. i. "Paul Perrin asserts, that the Waldenses were time out of mind in Italy and Dalmatia, and were the offspring of the Novatianists, who were persecuted and driven from Rome, A.D. 400 (rather 413); and who, for purity in communion, were called Puritans. The name of Paterines was given to the Waldenses; and who, for the most part, held the same opinions, and have therefore been taken for one and the same class of people, who continued till the Reformation under name of Paterines or Waldenses. There was no difference in religious views between the Albigenses and Waldenses. All those people inhabiting the south of France were called, in general, Albigenses; and, in doctrine and manners, were not distinct from the Waldenses. Bossuet, bishop of Meaux, says, as to the Vaudois, they were a species of Donatists, and worse than the ancient Donatists; they formed their churches of only good men: they all, without distinction, if they were reputed good people, preached and administered the ordinances." (G.H. Orchard, A Concise History of Foreign Baptists, page 259) ii. "The Waldenses were, in religious sentiments, substantially the same as the Paulicians, Paterines, Puritans, and Albigenses." (G.H. Orchard, A Concise History of Foreign Baptists, page 259) iii. "Prof. William Whitsitt, D.D., says: “The Catharists were as thick as hops and they — the Waldenses — joined them. … Not much difference between Waldenses and Catharists.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 253) J. The Waldenses were Baptists. i. "The Waldenses admitted the catechumeni after an exact instruction, a long fast in which the church united, to witness to them the concern they took in their conversion, and a confession of sins in token of contrition. The newly baptized were, the same day, admitted to the eucharist, with all the brethren and sisters present. Thus they, like Baptists, first instructed; second, baptized; third, being in the church, admitted them to the supper believers’ baptism and “close communion.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 168) ii. "Jones quotes from a translation of Mosheim: “Before the rise of Luther and Calvin, there lay concealed in almost all the countries of Europe persons who adhered tenaciously to the principles of the Dutch Baptists.”" (W.A. Jarrel, Baptist Church Perpetuity, page 181) For a master copy of the outline, click here: Baptist Church History